18th AND 19th century scientists Pt 13

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18th AND 19th century scientists Pt 13

Message  Admin le Ven 30 Mar - 0:54

Walter S. Sutton and *T. Boveri (1902) independently
discovered chromosomes and the linkage of genetic
characters. This was only two years after Mendel’s
research was rediscovered. Scientists were continually
learning new facts about the fixity of the species.
*Thomas Hunt Morgan (1886-1945) was an American
biologist who developed the theory of the gene.

He found that the genetic determinants were present in a
definite linear order in the chromosomes and could be
somewhat “mapped.” He was the first to work intensively
with the fruit fly, Drosophila (*Michael Pitman, Adam and
Evolution, 1984, p. 70). But research with fruit flies, and
other creatures, has proved a total failure in showing mutations
to be a mechanism for cross-species change (*Richard
B. Goldschmidt, “Evolution, as Viewed by One Geneticist,”
American Scientist, January 1952, p. 94).

*H.J. Muller (1990-1967). Upon learning of the 1927
discovery that X-rays, gamma rays, and various chemicals
could induce an extremely rapid increase of mutations
in the chromosomes of test animals and plants, Muller
pioneered in using X-rays to greatly increase the mutation
rate in fruit flies. But all he and the other researchers
found was that mutations were always harmful (*H.J.
Muller, Time, November 11, 1946, p. 38; *E.J. Gardner,
Principles of Genetics, 1964, p. 192; *Theodosius

Dobzhansky, Genetics and the Origin of the Species,
1951, p. 73).
*Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was deeply indebted
to the evolutionary training he received in Germany
as a young man. He fully accepted it, as well as
*Haeckel’s recapitulation theory. Freud began his Introductory
Lectures on Psychoanalysis (1916) with
Haeckel’s premise: “Each individual somehow recapitulates
in an abbreviated form the entire development of the
human race” (*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution,
1990, p. 177).

Freud’s “Oedipus complex” was based on a theory of
“primal horde” he developed about a “mental complex”
that caveman families had long ago. His theories of anxiety
complexes, and “oral” and “anal” stages, etc., were
based on his belief that our ancestors were savage.
*H.G. Wells (1866-1946), the science fiction pioneer
based his imaginative writings on evolutionary teachings.
He had received a science training under Professor
*Thomas H. Huxley, *Darwin’s chief defender.

*Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930), like a variety
of other evolutionist leaders before and after, was
an avid spiritist. Many of his mystery stories were based
on evolutionary themes.
*George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) was so deeply
involved in evolutionary theory, that he openly declared
that he wrote his plays to teach various aspects of the
theory (*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution, 1990, p.

Piltdown Man (1912). In 1912, parts of a jaw and
skull were found in England and dubbed “Piltdown
Man.” News of it created a sensation. The report of a
dentist, in 1916, who said someone had filed down the
teeth was ignored. As we will learn below, in 1953 the
fact that it was a total hoax was uncovered. This, like
all the later evidences that our ancestors were part ape,
Brief History of Evolutionary Theory 37
has been questioned or repudiated by reputable scientists.
See chapter 13, Ancient Man.

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Date d'inscription : 10/03/2012
Localisation : Paris

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