18th AND 19th century scientists Pt 11

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18th AND 19th century scientists Pt 11

Message  Admin le Ven 30 Mar - 0:51

In 1866, Marx wrote to *Frederick Engels, that Origin
of the Species contained the basis in natural history for
their political and economic system for an atheist world.
Engels, the co-founder of world communism with Marx
and *Lenin, wrote to Karl Marx in 1859: “Darwin,
whom I am just now reading, is splendid” (*C. Zirkle,
Evolution, Marxian Biology, and the Social Scene, 1959,
p. 85). In 1861, Marx wrote to Engels: “Darwin’s book is
very important and serves me as a basis in natural selection
for the class struggle in history” (*op. cit., p. 86).

At Marx’s funeral, Engles said that, as Darwin had discovered
the law of organic evolution in natural history, so
Marx had discovered the law of evolution in human history
(*Otto Ruhle, Karl Marx, 1948, p. 366).
As Darwin emphasized competitive survival as the key
to advancement, so communism focused on the value of
labor rather than the laborer. Like Darwin, Marx thought
he had discovered the law of development. He saw history
in stages, as the Darwinists saw geological strata and successive
forms of life.

*William Grant Sumner (1840-1910) applied evolutionary
principles to political economics at Yale University.
He taught many of America’s future business and
industrial leaders that strong business should succeed
and the weak perish, and that to help the unfit was to
injure the fit and accomplish nothing for society (*R.
Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution, 1990, pp. 59, 446, 72).
Millionaires were, in his thinking, the “fittest.” Modern
laissez-faire capitalism was the result (*Gilman M.
Ostrander, The Evolutionary Outlook: 1875-1900, 1971,
p. 5).

*William James (1842-1910) was another evolutionist
who influenced American thinking. His view of psychology
placed the study of human behavior on an animalistic
evolutionary basis.
Tidal Hypothesis Theory (1890). *George Darwin,
son of *Charles Darwin, wanted to come up with something
original, so he invented the theory that four million
years ago the moon was pressed nearly against the earth,
which revolved every five hours.—

Then one day, a heavy tide occurred in the oceans,
which lifted it out to its present
location! Later proponents of George’s theory decided that
the Pacific Basin is the hole the moon left behind, when
those large ocean waves pushed it out into space.

Messages : 563
Date d'inscription : 10/03/2012
Localisation : Paris

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